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Nationalism, populism and identities:


In the global context, the growth of nationalism and, in particular, populism is one of the greatest challenges facing not only Europe but also North and South America and the Asia Pacific region.


Nationalism has the potential to be a positive force. Populism, however, typically embraces an extreme form of nationalism. This can be a destructive force if it means that states retreat into an isolationist mindset and away from effective multilateral solutions to perceived cross-border problems. More specifically, it is capable of resulting in damaging impacts. This encompasses mistrust of state institutions, including the judiciary. Whether this results in state action to undermine the judiciary or a state’s failure to address unacceptable criticism leading to mistrust of the judiciary, populism can damage the rule of law. It also encompasses protectionism and the imposition of tariff barriers to interstate trade, and hostility towards economic migrants and refugees.

This document compiles all the individual papers and proposal documents resulting from the analysis and research work carried out by the professionals that were called upon by the Fide Foundation, in 2020, for the purpose of Fide’s 2nd International Congress on the contemporary challenges that arise from nationalistic, populist and identarian movements across the world, held at Jesus College, Oxford.

Table of Contents



A. Nationalism and populism: the themes and recommendations of fide's oxford congress: a call for eu action.

B. Scene setter paper ii fide congress at oxford.

Nationalism, populism and the economy

C. A new and fairer globalization.

D. The future of the eu’s economic proposition in light of looming economic populism: a case for an endogenous response.

E. Populism, inequality, and economic growth.

F. Constitutional, legal and governance questions in the context of nationalism.

List of Authors

In this section you can find the list of authors who have contributed an original article to the document. From Fundación Fide we want to thank this magnificent group of professionals for their participation* in this document.



  • Guillermo ARTHUR, President of the International Federation of Pension Fund Administrators (FIAP).

  • Mariano BACIGALUPO, Professor of Administrative Law at the Spanish Open University (Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia, UNED). Academic Advisor to Fide.

  • Stefania BARONCELLI, Tenured full professor, Public and European Union Law, Free University of Bozen/Bolzano.

  • Senén BARRO, Scientific Director of the CiTIUS-Research Centre in Intelligent Technologies of the University of Santiago de Compostela.

  • Charles BRENDON, PhD. Academic economist based at Queens' College and the Faculty of Economics, Cambridge.

  • Pilar CANEDO, Member of the Board of the National Commission of the Markets and of the Competition. Professor of Private International Law. University of Deusto.

  • Sonsoles CENTENO HUERTA, Partner of the European Union Law Department at Pérez-Llorca.  State Advocate on leave of absence. Former Head the Legal Service before the Court of Justice of the European Union.

  • Enrique CHAMORRO, Partner in the Department of M&A and Private Equity at DLA Piper.

  • Gordon L. CLARK, Professorial Fellow at St Edmund Hall, Oxford and Director Emeritus Smith School of Enterprise and the Environment, Oxford University.  

  • Rosario COSPEDAL, General director of Genómica. Currently COO at Blue Healthcare. Member of Fide’s International Academic Council. 

  • Federico DE MONTALVO, Professor of Constitutional Law, Law School, Comillas Pontifical University of Madrid.

  • Francisco DE LA TORRE, Tax inspector.

  • Miguel DE LA MANO, Executive Vice President at Compass Lexecon based in Brussels. Currently Partner in RBB Economics 

  • Talita DIAS, Shaw Foundation Junior Research Fellow in Law, Jesus College, Oxford University.

  • Rafael DOMÍNGUEZ OLIVERA, State Lawyer and currently the Head of the Legal Service to the Ministry of Transportation, Mobility and Urban Agenda of Spain. Academic Advisor to Fide.

  • Juan ESPINOSA GARCÍA, Partner at Silverback Advocacy. Previously, Advisor to the Ministry of Finance and Civil Service of Spain and Director-General of Spain´s Online Gambling Authority.

  • Cecilia GARCÍA-PEÑALOSA, Professor of Economics at Aix-Marseille University and senior research fellow at the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique.

  • María GARROTE DE MARCOS, Associate Professor of Constitutional Law at the Faculty of Law, Complutense University of Madrid.

  • Ela GÖKALP ARAS, Senior Researcher, Swedish Research Institute in Istanbul.

  • Daniel INNERARITY, Professor of political philosophy, IKERBASQUE researcher at the University of the Basque Country and Chair Artificial Intelligence and Democracy at the European University Institute of Florence.

  • Fernando IRURZUN MONTORO, Partner in charge of Litigation and Dispute Resolution practice in Clifford Chance Spain. He has been Agent of the Kingdom of Spain before the European Court of Human Rights, and State Attorney before different Spanish Courts.

  • Cristina JIMÉNEZ SAVURIDO, President of Fide Foundation. Congress director.

  • Borja LASHERAS, Senior Fellow at the Centre for European Policy Analysis.

  • Gabriel LÓPEZ SERRANO, Lawyer, Director of Regulatory Affairs for Microsoft Ibérica. Academic Advisor to Fide of FIDE.

  • Eva M. GUTIERREZ, Lead Financial Economist in the Latin American and Caribbean Region of the World Bank.

  • Dr Radhika KHOSLA, Associate Professor at the Smith School of Enterprise and Environment, and Research Director of the Oxford India Centre for Sustainable Development at the University of Oxford.

  • Laurent MANDERIEUX, Professor of Intellectual Property Law at L. Bocconi University of Milan, Italy, Member of the Directorate Board, Bocconi LL.M in Law of Internet Technology, Director, Bocconi Summer Schools in Law. Academic Advisor to Fide and Member of Fide’s international Academic Council.

  • Elisabetta MARAFIOTI, Professor of Management at University of Milano–Bicocca.

  • Juan MARTÍNEZ CALVO, Lawyer. Partner in Simmons & Simmons.

  • Martín MARTÍNEZ NAVARRO, Référendaire (law clerk) at the Court of Justice of the European Union.

  • Ángel MARTÍNEZ- ALDAMA, President of the Spanish Association of Investment and Pension Funds.

  • Santiago MONTENEGRO, President of the Colombian Association of Pension and Fund Administrators (ASOFONDOS).

  • Rafael MORLANES FERNÁNDEZ, Public Prosecutor. (Public Prosecutor office of Madrid). Academic Advisor to Fide.

  • Sir JOHN MUMMERY, formerly a member of the Court of Appeal of England and Wales. Bencher of Gray’s Inn (member of the governing council).

  • Christopher MUTTUKUMARU, Barrister, Bencher of Gray´s Inn and Chair of the International Academic Council. Congress Director.

  • Ulla NEERGAARD, Professor in EU Law, University of Copenhagen. President of the Danish Association of European Law.

  • René NOVELLINO, Executive Director of the Salvadorean Association of Pension Funds Administrators (ASAFONDOS).

  • Ramón PALACÍN SOTILLOS, Managing Partner, EY Abogados. Specialist in tax law, especially in international taxation.

  • Stavros PAPAGEORGOPOULOS, Senior Legal Officer at the European Council on Refugees and Exiles (ECRE) in Brussels.

  • Joe PERKINS, Senior Vice President, and Head of Research at Compass Lexecon based in London. Fellow at Queen’s College Cambridge.

  • Marie PIERRE-REY, Director of the Sorbonne research unit ‘Identities, international relations, and civilizations of Europe’, Professor of Modern History at the University Panthéon-Sorbonne, and specialist of Russian-European relations. Member of Fide’s International Academic Council until 2022.

  • Kadambari PRASAD, Vice President at Compass Lexecon, based in London.

  • Juan RAMÓN CARIDAD, Member of the Board of Fide Foundation.

  • Juan RIVERA, Senior Managing Director at FTI Consulting.

  • Teresa RODRÍGUEZ DE LAS HERAS BALLELL, Professor of Commercial Law at the Carlos III University of Madrid. Sir Roy Goode Scholar at UNIDROIT. Academic Advisor to Fide.

  • Concha SERRANO, Director of Institutional Relations, Pfizer.

  • Guillermo SERRANO, Public Policy Manager, Spain & Portugal, Meta. Currently Head of Government Relations in Trainline España 

  • Her Excellency Saroja SIRISENA, High Commissioner for Sri Lanka to the United Kingdom.

  • Michael URBAN, PhD, Chief Sustainability Strategist at Lombard Odier (LO), which is a Swiss Bank specializing in wealth and asset management

  • Julio VELOSO CARO, Partner of Broseta and Head of International.

  • Derrick WYATT QC, Emeritus Professor of Law, University of Oxford. Member of Fide’s International Academic Council.




  • Rosario COSPEDAL, General director of Genómica. Currently COO at Blue Healthcare. Member of Fide’s International Academic Council. 
  • Frédéric JENNY, Professor Emeritus of Economics at ESSEC Business School in Paris. Member of Fide’s International Academic Council.
  • Cristina JIMENEZ SAVURIDO, President of Fide. Congress director.
  • Christopher MUTTUKUMARU, CB DL, Barrister, Bencher of Gray´s Inn and Chair of the International Academic Council from 201-2022. Congress Director.
  • Jorge PADILLA, Senior Managing Director and Head of Compass Lexecon Europe. Member of Fide’s International Academic Council, currently chair since September 2022.
  • Marie PIERRE-REY, Director of the Sorbonne research unit ‘Identities, international relations, and civilizations of Europe’, Professor of Modern History at the University 
  • Panthéon-Sorbonne, and specialist of Russian-European relations. Member of Fide’s International Academic Council until 2022 (*).
  • Derrick WYATT, KC, Emeritus Professor of Law, University of Oxford. Member of Fide’s International Academic Council.

*This work of reflection and proposals has been prepared from the Contributions of all the participants in the Oxford Congress 22 by Fide. Although logically they do not represent the unanimous opinion of all do reflect the issues on which the debate has focused. All the people who have participated in this Congress, have done so in a personal capacity and not on behalf of the entities, offices, universities, or companies, where they carry out their work professional, therefore this document does not reflect and do not include institutional positions but particular ones of each one of the participants of the Congress.

Recommended Readings:
  1. Bussolo, Maurizio; Davalos, Maria E.; Peragine, Vito; Sundaram, Ramya. 2018. Toward a New Social Contract: Taking on Distributional Tensions in Europe and Central Asia. Europe and Central Asia Studies;. © Washington, DC: World Bank. Read License: CC BY 3.0 IGO.” 
  2. Testaverde, Mauro; Pavilon, Jacquelyn. 2022. Building Resilient Migration Systems in the Mediterranean Region: Lessons from COVID-19. © Washington, DC: World Bank. Read License: CC BY 3.0 IGO.
  3. World Bank. 2022. Europe and Central Asia Economic Update, Fall 2022: Social Protection for Recovery. © Washington, DC : World Bank. Read License: CC BY 3.0 IGO.” 
  4. World Bank. 2016. Europe and Central Asia Economic Update, November 2016: Polarization and Populism. © Washington, DC: World Bank. Read License: CC BY 3.0 IGO.” 


Christopher Muttukumaru, CB DL

Barrister. Former chair of FIDE’s International Academic Council

Cristina Jiménez Savurido

President and Founding Patron


Academic Direction of the Fide Foundation


Academic Direction of the Fide Foundation


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